prince arabie saoudite

[80], In 2005, King Fahd died and was succeeded by Abdullah, who continued the policy of minimum reform and clamping down on protests. [424] A large fraction are foreign nationals. The Al Jouf farms are located in Sakaka, a city in the north-western part of Saudi Arabia, which is a deeply-rooted in history. [576], As of February 2018, Saudi women can now open their own business, without a male's permission. In public women are required to wear a black abaya or other black clothing that covers everything under the neck with the exception of their hands and feet, although most women cover their head in respect for their religion. As of October 2018, the Saudi economy was the largest in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world. government. In February 2009, Abdullah announced a series of governmental changes to the judiciary, armed forces, and various ministries to modernize these institutions including the replacement of senior appointees in the judiciary and the Mutaween (religious police) with more moderate individuals and the appointment of the country's first female deputy minister. For rare chilly days, Saudi men wear a camel-hair cloak (bisht) over the top. [citation needed], Royal decrees are the other main source of law; but are referred to as regulations rather than laws because they are subordinate to the Sharia. ", WikiLeaks Shows a Saudi Obsession With Iran, "Saudi Arabia urges US attack on Iran to stop nuclear programme", "Obama advised Netanyahu of Iran talks in September", "Iran nuclear deal: Saudi Arabia and Gulf react with caution", "Insight: Saudis brace for 'nightmare' of U.S.-Iran rapprochement", "US, Saudi drifting apart despite Obama visit", "Saudi Arabian troops enter Bahrain as regime asks for help to quell uprising", U.S. 0 Reviews. During the 1970s, cinemas were numerous in the Kingdom although they were seen as contrary to Wahhabi norms. It is likely that Tarout Island was the main port and the capital of Dilmun. Related Pages. The country exports wheat, dates, dairy products, eggs, fish, poultry, fruits, vegetables and flowers to markets around the world. Viele islamische Gruppen in Saudi-Arabien und im Ausland, die sich an dem Dschihad in Afghanistan beteiligt hatten, sahen dies als eine Besetzung islamischen Bodens durch „Truppen der Ungläubigen“ und protestieren gegen die saudischen Herrscher, die diese Besetzung erlaubten. [300], The relations with the U.S. became strained following 9/11 terror attacks. On the Red Sea coast, there is a narrow coastal plain, known as the Tihamah parallel to which runs an imposing escarpment. & Charloux, G. (2015), "From Liyan to the Nabataeans: Dating the End of the Iron Age in Northwestern Arabia" – p. 297. [428][429], The official language of Saudi Arabia is Arabic. [286][287], In the wake of Jamal Khashoggi's murder in October 2018, the US secretary of state Mike Pompeo and the US defence secretary Jim Mattis called for a ceasefire in Yemen within 30 days followed by UN-initiated peace talks. By 1984, it had become self-sufficient in wheat. Critics accused the kingdom of "sportswashing", as it turned a blind eye to the unending violation of human rights in the country against women, minorities, rights advocates and critics. The last reported execution for sorcery took place in September 2014. The royal family dominates the political system. [133], Since 2001, Saudi Arabia has engaged in widespread internet censorship. [361] This also includes 42 species of deepwater fish. [114], The second event was the Grand Mosque Seizure in Mecca by Islamist extremists. [502] In legal compensation court cases (Diyya) non-Muslim are awarded less than Muslims. [63], By the late Bronze Age, a historically recorded people and land (Midian and the Midianites) in the north-western portion of Saudi Arabia are well-documented in the Bible. Initial analysis of the discovery concluded that the eastern province of Saudi Arabia was the homeland of the earliest settlers of Mesopotamia, and by extension, the likely origin of the Sumerians. In der zweiten Hälfte des 19. [80], In 1953, Saud of Saudi Arabia succeeded as the king of Saudi Arabia, on his father's death, until 1964 when he was deposed in favor of his half brother Faisal of Saudi Arabia, after an intense rivalry, fueled by doubts in the royal family over Saud's competence. Petroleum was discovered on 3 March 1938 and followed up by several other finds in the Eastern Province. [49] Saudi Arabia supports the intended formation of the Arab Customs Union in 2015 and an Arab common market[218] by 2020, as announced at the 2009 Arab League summit. [492] 90 percent of books published in the kingdom were on religious subjects, and most of the doctorates awarded by its universities were in Islamic studies. [462] In November 2013, Saudi Arabia expelled thousands of illegal Ethiopian residents from the Kingdom. [318] Since 1985, the UK has supplied military aircraft—notably the Tornado and Eurofighter Typhoon combat aircraft—and other equipment as part of the long-term Al-Yamamah arms deal estimated to have been worth £43 billion by 2006 and thought to be worth a further £40 billion. Search. The earliest substantiated evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree is from the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of Arabia. There were divisions within the family over who should succeed to the throne after the accession or earlier death of Prince Sultan. The rate of local unemployment is 12.9%, its highest in more than a decade. [546], Under Saudi law, every adult female must have a male relative as her "guardian" (wali),[546] As of 2008, a woman was required to have permission from her male guardian in order to travel, study, or work. [116], In 1980, Saudi Arabia bought out the American interests in Aramco. [591] Classes are segregated by sex. [13], The territory that now constitutes Saudi Arabia was the site of several ancient cultures and civilizations. 5,727 people like this. Portrait. Shortly thereafter, Saudi Arabia began exporting wheat to some 30 countries, including China and the former Soviet Union, and in the major producing areas of Tabuk, Hail and Qasim, average yields reached 8.1 tonnes per hectare (3.6 short ton/acre). [264], In order to protect the house of Khalifa, the monarchs of Bahrain, Saudi Arabia invaded Bahrain by sending military troops to quell the uprising of Bahraini people on 14 March 2011. As in other Arab countries of the Arabian Peninsula, machbūs (kabsa), a rice dish with lamb, chicken, fish or shrimp, is among the national dishes as well as the dish mandi (food). It would be the first time the Gulf nation would be hosting an F1 race as one of 23 grand prix in the busiest calendar ever. [144] In many ways the approach to government differs little from the traditional system of tribal rule. It led to rapid technological (but not cultural) modernization, urbanization, mass public education and the creation of new media. [83][84] The Uyunid Emirate later underwent expansion with its territory stretching from Najd to the Syrian desert. [433], Virtually all Saudi citizens are Muslim[435] (officially, all are), and almost all Saudi residents are Muslim. [148] The number of princes is estimated to be at least 7,000, with most power and influence being wielded by the 200 or so male descendants of Ibn Saud. [531], Developments in the arts in 2018 included Saudi Arabia's debut appearances at the Cannes Film Festival and the Venice Biennale. [199][200] The system has also been criticized for being arcane,[201] lacking in some of the safeguards of justice, and unable to deal with the modern world. Saudi Arabia has one of the highest percentages of military expenditure in the world, spending around 8% of its GDP in its military, according to the 2020 SIPRI estimate. Page created - February 19, 2011. Kasachstan | The Nabataeans ruled large portions of north Arabia until their domain was annexed by the Roman Empire. [402], The Kingdom likewise has some of the most modern and largest dairy farms in the Middle East. The facility raised concerns among the US and allied officials about Saudi nuclear energy plans and the country’s option of developing nuclear weapon. The king combines legislative, executive, and judicial functions[142] and royal decrees form the basis of the country's legislation. Negotiations to join had focused on the degree to which Saudi Arabia is willing to increase market access to foreign goods and in 2000, the government established the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority to encourage foreign direct investment in the kingdom. In the case of the Al Saud, this is Saud ibn Muhammad ibn Muqrin, the father of the dynasty's 18th-century founder, Muhammad bin Saud. A number of prominent Saudi Arabian princes, government ministers, and businesspeople, including Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal, were arrested in Saudi Arabia in November 2017. In 1972, Saudi Arabia gained a 20 percent control in Aramco, thereby decreasing US control over Saudi oil. [335] The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom had unsuccessfully[336] urged President Barack Obama to raise human rights concerns with King Abdullah on his March 2014 visit to the Kingdom especially the imprisonments of Sultan Hamid Marzooq al-Enezi, Saud Falih Awad al-Enezi, and Raif Badawi. Le prince d'Arabie Saoudite. [118], In the 1980s, Saudi Arabia spent $25 billion in support of Saddam Hussein in the Iran–Iraq War. More than 1200 species of fish[360] have been recorded in the Red Sea, and around 10 percent of these are found nowhere else. [47] In addition to being a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council, it is an active and founding member of the United Nations, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Arab League, OPEC and is also a major non-NATO ally. [299] Similarly, President of Syria Bashar al-Assad noted that the sources of the extreme ideology of the terrorist organization ISIS and other such salafist extremist groups are the Wahabbism that has been supported by the royal family of Saudi Arabia. The US called for a ceasefire within 30 days. [568], In August 2013, a law was passed that criminalized domestic violence against women. [71] The earliest attestation of state regality, King of Lihyan, was in the mid-sixth century BC. [100] A much smaller second "Saudi state", located mainly in Nejd, was established in 1824. Bhutan | [139] The Economist rated the Saudi government as the fifth most authoritarian government out of 167 rated in its 2012 Democracy Index,[26] and Freedom House gave it its lowest "Not Free" rating, 7.0 ("1=best, 7=worst") for 2019. Am 23. In January 2020, several other WWE superstars casted doubt over visiting Saudi, following the heightened tensions in Middle East due to assassination of Qassem Soleimani. Saudi Arabia has the world's second-largest proven petroleum reserves and the country is the largest exporter of petroleum. [248][249][250][251][252][253] In February 2019, Crown Prince Mohammad defended China's Xinjiang re-education camps for Uyghur Muslims,[254][255] saying "China has the right to carry out anti-terrorism and de-extremisation work for its national security. Although now extremely wealthy, Saudi Arabia's economy was near stagnant. [401], Each year, about a quarter-million young Saudis enter the job market. [143], By custom, all males of full age have a right to petition the king directly through the traditional tribal meeting known as the majlis. Syrien | [344][345][346], In December 2019, Saudi Arabia organized a big-budget electronic dance music festival, MDL Beast to the kingdom, "the region's biggest music event". [74] The Lihyanites ruled over large domain from Yathrib in the south and parts of the Levant in the north. [353], Saudi Arabia's geography is dominated by the Arabian Desert, associated semi-desert and shrubland (see satellite image) and several mountain ranges and highlands. With the first phase of Saudization into effect, 70% of sales job are expected to be filled by Saudis. [213] However, there is evidence that the vast majority was, in fact, spent on propagating and extending the influence of Wahhabism at the expense of other forms of Islam. In the spring and autumn the heat is temperate, temperatures average around 29 °C (84 °F). Part of the response of the royal family was to enforce a much stricter observance of traditional religious and social norms in the country (for example, the closure of cinemas) and to give the Ulema a greater role in government. The area of modern-day Saudi Arabia formerly consisted of mainly four distinct regions: Hejaz, Najd and parts of Eastern Arabia (Al-Ahsa) and Southern Arabia ('Asir). 156–157. Oman | Saudi Arabia is home to a rich marine life. More than a billion Sunnis have simply had enough of them. [111] In 1979, two events occurred which greatly concerned the government,[113] and had a long-term influence on Saudi foreign and domestic policy. The Bani Khalid tribe later revolted against them in 17th century and took control. Scuba diving, windsurfing, sailing and basketball (which is played by both men and women) are also popular with the Saudi Arabian national basketball team winning bronze at the 1999 Asian Championship. [142], Women's sport is controversial due to the suppression of female participation in sport by conservative Islamic religious authorities,[536] however this restriction has eased slightly in recent years. [297] Apart from China, the UN nuclear watchdog, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was also assisting Saudi’s nuclear ambition. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. One journalist states that 51% of the Saudi population is under the age of 25: The Economist magazine lists an estimated nine million: Willem Adriaan Veenhoven and Winifred Crum Ewing (1976). From 2003 to 2013, "several key services" were privatized—municipal water supply, electricity, telecommunications—and parts of education and health care, traffic control and car accident reporting were also privatized. [156][158] When prince Sultan died before ascending to the throne on 21 October 2011, King Abdullah appointed Prince Nayef as crown prince. Gegenwärtig entstammen ihr etwa 5000[1][2][3] bis 7000[4] lebende Prinzen, die alle großzügig staatlich alimentiert werden.[4]. by Joachim Reichenthal Print book: Fiction: French. [605][606] Following the 9/11 attacks, the government aimed to tackle the twin problems of encouraging extremism and the inadequacy of the country's university education for a modern economy, by slowly modernising the education system through the "Tatweer" reform program. The predominantly loose and flowing, but covering, garments are suited to Saudi Arabia's desert climate. ", "Saudi Arabia Imposes Death Sentence for Bible Smuggling", Saudi Arabia declares all atheists are terrorists in new law to crack down on political dissidents, "Saudi Arabia: 2 Years Behind Bars on Apostasy Accusation", 'The destruction of Mecca: Saudi hardliners are wiping out their own heritage', 'Islamic heritage lost as Makkah modernises', 'Shame of the House of Saud: Shadows over Mecca', Destruction of Islamic Architectural Heritage in Saudi Arabia: A Wake-up Call, "Al-Hijr Archaeological Site (Madâin Sâlih)", "Al-Ahsa Oasis, an Evolving Cultural Landscape", "Rock Art in the Hail Region of Saudi Arabia", KSA Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List (4), Saudi Arabia to Spend $1Bn On Cultural Heritage, Destruction du patrimoine : une résolution historique du Conseil de Sécurité, "I will return Saudi Arabia to moderate Islam, says crown prince", "Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman's dynamic year of reform", "Catholic cardinal meets Saudi King in historic visit to Riyadh", "Saudi Arabia commits US$25 million to UNESCO for the protection of heritage", "Traditional dress of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia", "Saudi Arabia allows concerts—even country music", "Mohammed Abdu to perform live in Riyadh", "Rise of Saudi Prince Shatters Decades of Royal Tradition", "Saudi Arabia to reopen public cinemas for the first time in 35 years", "Saudi Arabia to Debut at Cannes With Its First National Pavilion", "Saudi Arabia and Lebanon are Set to Make Their Venice Biennale Debut", "David Guetta on his historic Saudi Arabia performance", "Saudi Arabian Slam Dunk, Fall 1997, Winter 1998, Volume 14, Number 4, Saudi Arabia", "Saudi women show greater interest in sports and games", "Men Basketball Asia Championship 1999 Fukuoka (JPN)- 28.08–05.09 Winner China", "Saudi women push for right to play sports – Sport", "Saudi Arabia opens first sports centre for women", "Saudi government sanctions sports in some girls' schools", "Saudi Arabia: No women on Asian Games Team", "Saudi Arabia to let women into sports stadiums", "Sportswashing: how Saudi Arabia lobbies the US's largest sports bodies", "Reforms Under Veil: Saudi's First Women Wrestling Battled in Bodysuits", "Saudi Arabia Embraces Western Sports to Rehabilitate Global Image", "Two Years of WWE in Saudi Arabia and Growing Resistance of Superstars", "F1 risks human rights wrath over first Saudi Arabian race", "Saudi women no longer need male guardian consents to receive services", "Saudi Arabia to let women work and study without man's permission", "Saudi Writer and Journalist Wajeha Al-Huwaider Fights for Women's Rights", Saudi women no longer confined to their conventional roles, Age at First Marriage, Female – All Countries, "Saudi Youth: Unveiling the Force for Change", 'Top Saudi cleric: OK for young girls to wed', "Saudi Human Rights Commission Tackles Child Marriages", "Women constitute 13% of Saudi workforce: stats agency", "Physical Activity and Health Beliefs among Saudi Women", "Ideological and ownership trends in the saudi media", "Saudi women rise up after years of absence", "Saudi stock exchange appoints first female chair", "Saudi Arabia just appointed a female deputy minister", "Women in Saudi Arabia to vote and run in elections", "Camera Snapshots: Media in the Service of King Abdullah", "Saudi Arabia's women vote in election for first time", "Saudi Arabia cabinet approves domestic abuse ban", "Saudi Arabia passes law criminalizing domestic abuse", "Saudi Arabia cabinet passes ban on domestic violence", "Saudi Stock Exchange appoints first female chief in history of the kingdom", "Prince Mohammed bin Salman announces Saudi plans for largest entertainment city", "World-class entertainment park coming up in Al-Qiddiya", "Saudi King issues decree allowing women to drive", "Saudi women to start own business without male permission", "Divorced Saudi women win right to get custody of children", "Saudi Arabia brings back movie theaters — and 'staggering' demand is expected", "Mohammed bin Salman's reforms in Saudi Arabia could benefit us all", "Saudi Arabia to allow adult women to travel, register divorce", "Saudi Arabian women finally allowed to hold passports and travel independently", "Saudi Arabia Invites Tourists: What You Need to Know", "Saudi Arabia Grants Free 'Events Only' Visas for UAE, Bahrain, Kuwait Expats", "Saudi Prince's Year of Prestige Is Unraveling in Front of Him", "Saudi Arabia Looks at 'Painful' Measures, Deep Spending Cuts", "Newcastle United takeover deal worth £300m close", "19 Saudi universities among top 100 in the Arab world", "ARWU World University Rankings 2018 | Academic Ranking of World Universities 2018 | Top 500 universities | Shanghai Ranking – 2018", "World University Rankings – 2018 | Saudi Arabia Universities in Top 500 universities | Academic Ranking of World Universities – 2018 | Shanghai Ranking – 2018", "Saudi Arabia's Education Reforms Emphasize Training for Jobs", "Saudi school lessons in UK concern government", "This medieval Saudi education system must be reformed", "Secondary School Studies Plan 1438 Hijri", SR9 billion Tatweer project set to transform education, "Saudi Arabia most improved economy for business", "Life expectancy at birth, total (years) – Saudi Arabia | Data", Key Development Forecasts for Saudi Arabia, Council of Economic and Development Affairs, Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (central bank), Union of Arab National Olympic Committees, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Saudi_Arabia&oldid=994567159, Arabic-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, States and territories established in 1932, Member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council, Pages with login required 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Aussprache: IPA: [aʁabi saudit] Hörbeispiele: Arabie saoudite Bedeutungen: [1] Staat in Asien; Saudi-Arabien. "[305] Former CIA director James Woolsey described it as "the soil in which Al-Qaeda and its sister terrorist organizations are flourishing. [80], Cultural life rapidly developed, primarily in the Hejaz, which was the center for newspapers and radio. [128] On 18 March the same year, King Abdullah announced a package of $93 billion, which included 500,000 new homes to a cost of $67 billion, in addition to creating 60,000 new security jobs. [463] Over 500,000 undocumented migrant workers — mostly from Somalia, Ethiopia, and Yemen — have been detained and deported since 2013. [277] In early 2014 relations with Qatar became strained over its support for the Muslim Brotherhood, and Saudi Arabia's belief that Qatar was interfering in its affairs. These rock engravings date back more than 8,000 years, making them the earliest depictions of dogs in the world. Animals such as gazelles, oryx, leopards and cheetahs[359] were relatively numerous until the 19th century, when extensive hunting reduced these animals almost to extinction. The local dairy manufacturing company Almarai is the largest vertically integrated dairy company in the Middle East. Saudi-US relations took an ugly turn on 14 October 2018, when Trump promised "severe punishment" if the royal court was responsible for Khashoggis’ death. [154] The current Minister of Defense is Prince Mohammad bin Salman, the son of King Salman and Crown Prince. [174], There has been mounting pressure to reform and modernize the royal family's rule, an agenda championed by King Abdullah both before and after his accession in 2005. [585] In 2 January 2020, Saudi Arabia announced three days Events-Only visa for expats living in United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Kuwait. Backs Saudi-Led Yemeni Bombing With Logistics, Spying, Saudi-led coalition strikes rebels in Yemen, inflaming tensions in region, "The Yemen war death toll is five times higher than we think – we can't shrug off our responsibilities any longer", 'Army of Conquest' rebel alliance pressures Syria regime, "Turkey and Saudi Arabia alarm the West by backing Islamist extremists the Americans had bombed in Syria", "CIA and Saudi weapons for Syrian rebels fueled black market arms trafficking, report says", "Saudi Arabia Hajj disaster death toll rises", "Death toll in Saudi haj disaster at least 2,070: Reuters tally", "Hajj stampede: Saudis face growing criticism over deaths", "From scrapped arms deals to pleas for democracy: why Sweden is the only Western country standing up to Saudi Arabia", "Egypt Protests could spread to other countries", "Top Saudi Officials Head to Qatar in Effort to Heal Rift", "Qatar-Gulf crisis: Your questions answered", "Saudi-Canada trade row: What business is at stake? [400] According to a report published by Bloomberg Economics in 2018, the government needs to produce 700,000 jobs by 2020 to meet its 9% unemployment target. Saudi Arabian cuisine is similar to that of the surrounding countries in the Arabian Peninsula and the wider Arab world, and has influenced and been influenced by Turkish, Indian, Persian, and African food. [404], The olive tree is indigenous to Saudi Arabia. "[80], In 1995, Fahd suffered a debilitating stroke, and the Crown Prince, Abdullah, assumed the role of de facto regent, taking on the day-to-day running of the country. [408] Institutional capacity and governance in the sector are weak, reflecting general characteristics of the public sector in Saudi Arabia. [610] In 2016, 69.7% of the adult population was overweight and 35.5% was obese. The farm covers 7730 hectares and has 5 million olive trees. Milk production boasts a remarkably productive annual rate of 1,800 gallons per cow, one of the highest in the world. Among its most productive crops are watermelon, grapes, citrus fruits, onions, squash and tomatoes. 1735–1765) schloss 1744 in Diriyya (heute ein Vorort von Riad) ein Bündnis mit Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, dem Begründer der Wahhabiten. Within the framework of the 2016 National Transformation Program, also known as Saudi Vision 2030, the kingdom allocated 900 million euros to preserve its historical and cultural heritage. [382], The oil industry constitutes about 45% of Saudi Arabia's nominal gross domestic product, compared with 40% from the private sector (see below). [66] The capital of Midian was Qurayyah,[67] it consists of a large fortified citadel encompassing 35 hectares and below it lies a walled settlement of 15 hectares. Given the substantial oil wealth, water is provided almost for free. With the help of the Ikhwan, the Kingdom of Hejaz was conquered in 1924–25 and on 10 January 1926, Ibn Saud declared himself King of Hejaz. That's a Travesty", "Austria calls for EU-wide halt in arms sales to Saudi Arabia", "Germany extends ban on arms sales to Saudi Arabia | DW | 28 March 2019", "The erosion of Saudi Arabia's image among its neighbours", "Early human migration written in stone tools : Nature News", "Al Magar - Paleolithic & Neolithic History", "Desert finds challenge horse taming ideas", "Carved in stone: were the Arabs the first to tame the horse? [141] Outside of the Al-Saud, participation in the political process is limited to a relatively small segment of the population and takes the form of the royal family consulting with the ulema, tribal sheikhs and members of important commercial families on major decisions. [71] The third state occurred during the early 3rd century BC with bursting economic activity between the south and north that made Lihyan acquire large influence suitable to its strategic position on the caravan road. [307] In April 2016, Saudi Arabia has threatened to sell off $750 billion in Treasury securities and other US assets if Congress passes a bill that would allow the Saudi government to be sued over 9/11. [405] The Al Jouf region has millions of olive trees and the expected number is expected to go up to 20 million trees soon. Institutions of higher education include the country's first university, King Saud University founded in 1957, the Islamic University at Medina founded in 1961, and the King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah founded in 1967. In 2016, the General Entertainment Authority was formed to oversee the expansion of the Saudi entertainment sector. There are several species of snakes, many of which are venomous. [340] In September 2015, Faisal bin Hassan Trad, Saudi Arabia's ambassador to the UN in Geneva, has been elected Chair of the United Nations Human Rights Council panel that appoints independent experts. [90] Their rule extended from Iraq to Oman at its height and they too came under Ottoman suzerainty. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Ottoman Empire continued to control or have a suzerainty over most of the peninsula. Mongolei | Politically, the Midianite were described as having decentralized structure headed by five kings (Evi, Rekem, Tsur, Hur and Reba), the names appears to be toponyms of important Midianite settlements. [229][230] However, the relationship between Saudi Arabia and the United States became strained and have witnessed major decline during the last years of the Obama administration,[231][232][233] although Obama had authorized US forces to provide logistical and intelligence support to the Saudis in their military intervention in Yemen, establishing a joint coordination planning cell with the Saudi military that is helping manage the war,[234][235] and CIA used Saudi bases for drone assassinations in Yemen.

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